BROMo VOLCANO (Tengger Caldera), Indonesia
Tengger caldera with Bromo volcano (middle left) and smoking Semeru volcano in the background.
View into Bromo volcano's crater vent.
Location of Bromo volcano
(volcano number: 0603-31, 7.942°S, 112.950°E,
- Activity updates -
11 June 2004 (updated 17 Sept. 2004):
Apparently without much warning (or no detected precursors), the
well-known Bromo volcano, visited each day by many tourists, erupted
suddenly in what appears a small vulcanian eruption (sudden explosion
caused by overpressured gas and magma trapped beneath a plug in the vent)
on 8 June,15.15pm Java time. Unfortunately, the eruption killed two people
and injured several ones, probably all of them being surprised by the
sudden explosion while visiting the crater or the area nearby.
If additional information and photos become available, they will be published on this website. In the meanwhile, this is the report summarized by the GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 2-8 June 2004:
"On 8 June, the Bromo vent of Tengger Caldera erupted, producing a gas-and-ash plume that rose ~3 km above the summit and caused light tephra-fall in the surrounding area. Two people were killed and at least seven injured by ballistics during the eruption. No evacuations have been ordered.
Background: The 16-km-wide Tengger caldera is located at the northern end of a volcanic massif extending from Semeru volcano. The massive Tengger volcanic complex dates back to about 820,000 years ago and consists of five overlapping stratovolcanoes, each truncated by a caldera. Lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a maar occupy the flanks of the massif. The Ngadisari caldera at the NE end of the complex formed about 150,000 years ago and is now drained through the Sapikerep Valley. The most recent of the Tengger calderas is the 9 x 10 km wide Sandsea Caldera at the SW end of the complex, which formed incrementally during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. An overlapping cluster of post-caldera cones was constructed on the floor of the Sandsea Caldera within the last several thousand years. The youngest of these is Bromo, one of Java's most active and most frequently visited volcanoes.
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© Tom Pfeiffer, page set up on 11 June 2004, last modified on 17 sept. 2004.